Organ donation is a noble act which gives an opportunity to save lives after death. An organ is a part of the body that performs a specific function like heart, lungs, kidney, liver, pancreas, etc. For many patients who suffer from end stage disease of various organs, organ donation is the only hope. The donated organs are transplanted into these patients for therapeutic purposes.
Tissue is a group of cells that performs a particular function in the human body, for example cornea (eye), bones, skin, heart valves, blood vessels, nerves and tendon, etc. Transplantation of different type of tissues can improve the quality of life of many recipients.
1. Living Organ Donation
A person, not less than 18 years of age, during his life can voluntarily authorize the removal of organs for therapeutic purposes within the legal framework of the country. He/she can donate one kidney, a part of the liver, and a portion of the pancreas.
Types of living donations are:
2. Deceased Organ Donation
A person, regardless of age can donate multiple organs/ tissues and give life to many patients after brain-stem/cardiac death. Consent of near relatives or a person in lawful possession of the dead body is required. If the deceased donor is under the age of 18 years, then the consent is required from one of the parents. Medical suitability for donation is determined at the time of the unfortunate event of death.
As per Transplantation of Human Organ Act, any living person other than near relatives can also donate organs based on affection and attachment towards the recipient or for any other special reason. Such cases have to be approved by the Authorization Committee of the Hospital where the transplant is going to take place. If such an Authorization Committee is not existing in the Hospital then it can be approved by the respective District or State level Authorization Committee.
Transplantation is the act of surgical removal of an organ from one person and placing it onto another person. It is needed when the recipient’s organ has failed or has been damaged due to illness/ end stage disease or injury.